This study of U.S. data shows that cannabinoid exposure meets criteria toward first Principal Components of five chromosomal birth defects (Downs syndrome, Trisomies 18 and 13, Turner syndrome, Deletion 22q11.2) and five cancers (thyroid, liver, breast and pancreatic cancers, and acute myeloid leukemia), that these effects are mostly of medium to large effect, and that these effects are exacerbated by cannabis liberalization. A rise from the fourth to fifth quintile of cannabis use was reported for 34 congenital birth anomolies including the chromosomal disorders noted above as well as cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders, orofacial clefts and limb reductions. Testicular cancer with its chromosome 12 anomolies, has been unanimously linked with parental cannabis expsure in four of four studies designed to examine this relationship. Cannabis expsure in utero is believed to activate testicular cancer during the hormone surge of adolescence. The authors point out that the emerging picture from U.S. data is "very concerning" and antithetical to the "soft drug image" of cannabis. Several cannabinoids are implicated: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabigerol, Cannabinol and Cannabichromene.
Published in Nature Scientific Reports
Authors: Albert Stuart Reece & Gary Kenneth Hulse